New York

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State of New York Property Taxes


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State Tax Summary
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The state of New York names the real property tax Real Property Tax. The official value standard states that the Market value of property – what a willing buyer would pay a willing seller for a specific property at a certain price. New York statues, as amended. The amount of a property tax bill is determined by the property’s assessment and the tax rate of the local taxing entity. The tax rate is the tax levy and the assessor determines the value of the property. All real property is assessed and is any land or permanent structure. All real property is assessed but not all real property is taxed. Personal exemptions are available for seniors, veterans, blind persons, disabled persons, and some homeowners qualify for the School Tax Relief program (STAR).

The assessor can estimate market value using sales price, cost method or income producing method. The total assessment is then multiplied by a uniform percentage for a taxing municipality. New York statutes mandate that all property is assessed at the same percentage. The percentage can be five, ten, twenty, fifty percent, but not to exceed 100 percent. The percentage is not important but every property must be assessed in a uniform manner. When property is assessed at 100 percent of market value, the assessment should equal the fair market resale value of the property. Some communities assess at a percentage of market value, and then the value of each property is listed on a tentative assessment roll. Property owners must check this roll for errors. The tentative roll is filled on May 1. The final is filed on July 1. Personal exemptions are for homeowners, renters, seniors, those with disabilities and veterans. Exemptions are for government, personal, non-profit, charitable, and educational property. Hospitals, cemeteries, business property improvements, railroads and agriculture property is exempt from property tax. There is a three step appeal process. Property owners may file an appeal for a $35 application fee with the Small Claims Court before July 31. The New York Service Center (ASC) provides tax service for New York.

Contents

Responsible agency

  • State of New York
  • Division of Equalization and Assessment
  • 16 Sheridan Street
  • Albany, New York 12210-2714
  • Voice (518) 474-5711
  • FAX (518) 474-9276

Property tax calendar

  • Assessment date January 1 (in most taxing districts)
  • Valuation Notice Date Notices are sent annually in May 1
  • Appeal Deadline 30 days from date of mailing of notice or any time in May
  • Bill Payment Date Each taxing entity establishes billing dates and installment amounts. County/town tax is collected annually; school tax collected annually; village tax collected annually and city tax collected annually, semiannual, tri-annual and quarterly.

Property tax rates and dates

  • Annual assessment of real property Yes
  • Classification of property

For New York City and Nassau County (Long Island), residential property is Class II. For all other municipalities, residential is Class A.

  • Collections Taxes are collected one year in arrears
  • Fiscal year

Varies by county and varies by taxing authority. County/town taxes have fiscal year from January 1 through December 31. City fiscal years are the same as the collection fiscal year. School district tax bills are collected in the fiscal year, July 1 through June 30. The village tax bills and collection year is same as the fiscal year, June 1 through May 31

  • Level of government responsible for assessment County/town, School, Village, and City tax
  • Reassessment cycle Not required.
  • Tax Calculation Rate Assessed Value x Tax Rate = Taxes Due

Residential Exemptions

Exemption claims must be filed to receive exemptions, then filed each year to continue receiving personal exemptions.

  • Disabled exemption

Taxpayers may receive a partial exemption for property taxes when improvements are made to a residence. The decrease is equal to the amount of the improvement made to facilitate the use and accessibility of that property.

  • Senior Citizen exemption

The Circuit Breaker program is for senior citizens at least 65 years of age and who have lived for 24 consecutive months in their homestead before applying for the exemption. For full exemption, senior citizens must have an income of less than limits set by taxing districts.

  • School Tax Relief (STAR)

The STAR exemption program includes two levels of exemptions for school taxes only: basic exemption and enhanced exemption. This program includes the property market value, value percentage, total tax levy, prior year percentage change and process to seek an exemption.

  • Basic Exemption

Taxpayers must apply by March 1. This exemption begins with $10,000 full value assessment exemption and over three years, increases to a minimum of $30,000 for the 2001-2002 school year.

  • Enhanced Exemption

Taxpayers must apply by March 1. Senior citizens 65 years of age or older with an income of less than $60,000 are eligible for this exemption. This exemption begins with $12,500 full value assessment exemption and over three years, increases to a minimum of $50,000 for the 2001-2002 school year.

  • Veterans

Veterans are eligible for exemption from assessed value for county/town, city and school taxes.

  • Veteran Funds

Veterans are eligible for a maximum of $5,000 exemption from assessed value. This exemption is for county/town or city taxes only.

  • Veteran Alternative Funds

Veterans are eligible for exemption from assessed value for county/town, city and school taxes.The exemption is issued for veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf war periods. Taxpayers must apply by March 1.

Commercial Exemptions

  • Agriculture Personal property exemption

Property used for agriculture operations and farm implements; farm food products in storage; beet sugar held by processors; qualified agriculture property may be exempt from school tax; nursery stock; and evergreen trees, shrubs, bushes and vines growing on agricultural land may be exempt.

  • Conservation property

A taxpayer must file a declaration with the local county assessor to claim an exemption for the control or prevention of flooding or erosion caused by waters in the New York state or from connecting tributaries.

  • Enterprise zones

New and existing businesses may qualify for a city granted property tax exemption if they locate in economically distressed areas approved as an Enterprise Zone. Qualified businesses may be subject to a specific tax. A local district may exempt all real property for an eligible business in a distressed area.

  • Pollution control property

A taxpayer must file a declaration to exempt property used exclusively for water or air pollution control.

Tax Collector and Officials

New York tax assessors may be appointed or elected; they have a minimum education requirement but experience may be substituted; and all assessors must take education courses and take a state certification test. The county treasurer is the ex-officio collector in all counties. County Assessors maintain and set property valuations. The County Auditor certifies property valuations. The County Treasurer collects current and delinquent property tax

Forms

Specific deduction claim forms are available from the local county assessors office or on the Internet http://www.orps.state.ny.us/

Forms due dates

Applications for deductions against real property must be filed with an affidavit to the local tax collector in New York by May 1 and must be filled again if the property changes owners. All deductions for real property require that the ownership must be recorded as of March 1 of the assessment year for taxes payable the following year. Manufactured and mobile homes, on private land, must be owned by January 1 to be eligible for the deductions to be applied to the tax bill for that year and is taxed as real property.

State assessor's manual

  • New York Division of Equalization and Assessment Assessor’s Manual
  • State of New York
  • Division of Equalization and Assessment
  • 16 Sheridan Street
  • Albany, New York 12210-2714
  • Voice (518) 474-5711
  • FAX (518) 474-9276
  • Price $35.00

How property tax determined

Residential property is assessed at market value and the assessor determines the fair market value. The assessor may use one of three methods.

  • Cost Approach

At current labor and material prices, estimate how much it would take to replace the property with one similar to it. Use this method when there are no sales of comparable properties.

  • Income Approach

For an apartment or office building, estimate how much income the property can produce.

  • Market Approach

Use other comparable properties that have sold recently, determine the most probable sales price of the subject property.

Appeal Procedure

  • First
  • Try to resolve the problem in an informal meeting with the tax assessor in the local county, after receiving an assessment notice.
  • Second
  • Next, if not satisfied with the informal meeting, file a formal appeal in writing with the Local Board of Assessment Review.
  • Third
  • If not satisfied, appeal in writing to the New York State Supreme Court, State Appellate Court or State Court of Appeals.

Additional tax classifications

  • Agricultural property tax None available.
  • Commercial property tax All other taxable real property is Class IV.
  • Personal property tax

There is no personal property tax on personal items or vehicles in New York state.

Additional tax bills and charges

  • Construction Work in Progress

Property that was 70% complete on valuation date, January 1 and 100% complete on tax status date, March 1, may be assessed at full market value.

  • Corrected bill

When an error is found on the original tax statement or when property owners go before the Board of Review, resulting in tax increases or decreases, a correct bill is issued when the corrections are made. Corrected bills are also issued when levy rates are wrong, the house is on the wrong tax lot and for homeowner exemption.

  • Delinquent taxes

Delinquent balances are applied to subsequent bills. Some cities, schools, and villages do not levy or send notices a second time. Refer to local taxing entity for delinquent taxes and for information regarding partial payments.

  • Penalty and Interest charges

A 1% penalty on each month missed. Interest may be increased 1% each month on the amount due when taxes are delinquent for more than one year.

Current Legislation and Pending Issues

References





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